[For around dismantling the electronic recycling industry chain ecological businesses, which are more commonly called e-waste is not "junk", but "urban mines"]
One station has not boot laptop, in addition to hard data, which may not allow users to feel part of the reason there is nostalgia, but for dismantling the electronics industry are concerned, this notebook "value tour" just begin.
Typically, one ton of ore contains about 5 grams of gold can be called high-grade ore, while one ton TV motherboard, the gold content of at least 80 grams, some as high as 150 grams, while in a notebook, in addition to gold, There are about 25% copper, 50% renewable plastic. For around dismantling the electronic recycling industry chain ecological businesses, these e-waste more common term is not "junk", but "urban mines."
Urban Mines "Nuggets"
Over the years, people the impression of electronic waste from private waste recycling. In the streets of the city, we can often see the "bicycle, scooters, tricycles and motorcycles" This car is represented by four guerrilla-style traders.
With every year a large number of consumer electronic products, small household appliances and other end of life electronic waste caused environmental pressure surge. Small workshops, self-employed type of traders for the pursuit of short-term interests, often using open burning, acid soak original way to extract precious metals, exhaust gas, waste of air, soil and water caused serious pollution, the industrialization of e-waste has become an urgent need resolve the issue.
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2011 became a turning point in the dismantling industry.
In the "National Economic and Social Development Twelfth Five-Year Plan" released that year, the first time the urban mine resources as the main resource recycling industry as a national strategic industry, and the beginning of the second year in July the official implementation of "waste electrical and electronic products processing fund." Not difficult to imagine, this decision makes a lot of wandering in less profitable lines of business have survived the dismantling of the foundation, and hopefully more "regular" flow of electronic waste dismantling.
January 2010 Grammy is listed after that began to enter the outbreak period, technology and industry chain has made great layout. 2014, Grammy three core businesses of cobalt and nickel tungsten, electronic waste and battery materials have achieved year on year growth, accounting for more electronic waste disposal revenue has 1.439 billion yuan, 311 million yuan gross profit contribution.
Grammy Jingmen factories in the park to see the whole process of handling electronic waste, from recycling into the library, to the final dismantling of the metal particles classification, most of the decomposition are completed by the machine.
In general, electronic waste dismantling divided into several processes:
The first is the storage. Bar code information in the information storage area, the reporter saw a large truck loaded with television sets and refrigerators stopped at the door of the storage area, on-site staff told reporters, in addition to standard code for each e-waste outside, In this area also need to knock on the back cover to observe these wastes inside wire board is complete.
"State subsidies in accordance with the number of units, so absolutely not allowed to conduct fraud, each storage of electronic waste will be relevant state departments of information and networking systems, supervision is very strict." Field staff reporter says.
After electronic waste storage areas generally will follow the production line, "scheduling" for dismantling, according to the TV, refrigerator, hosts and other storage quantity dismantling date arrangements. Reporters on the production line plant in the region to see that shop workers will be scrapped first refrigerator, air conditioning, television, computers and other electronic waste after primary classification, through a dedicated crusher for crushing. Then, through the magnetic separator selected iron, nickel and other metals, after the vortex separator system, elected copper, tin and other metals, and then through gravity separation system to achieve initial separation of metal and plastic. Finally, after the material sorting systems for mixed plastics separation of different materials to produce polypropylene, polystyrene, ABS and other common plastics and engineering plastics.
In order to maximize the separation and recovery of each component, Grammy using a process of dismantling the reverse way, that is set different stations on an assembly line. In dismantling the TV, for example, the production line will have a TV and a computer casing parts effectively dismantled, classification placed by different stations to maximize efficiency. The last can not be artificially decomposed board through a special machine to implement the final decomposition.
By the end of 2014, such as the Grammy waste electrical and electronic products to enter the list of subsidies to fund a total of 106 processing enterprises, in full swing in China, the annual capacity of more than 133 million sets of dismantling the actual dismantling disposal of waste electrical and electronic products reached 70 million or so. In addition to professional companies to carry out the recovery, the retail establishments are doing trade. Some appliance manufacturers and social service agencies, flea market also digested part of electronic waste, electronic waste recycling assumed functions.
On the surface of a piece of dismantling industry for the better, but the company's gross margin and operating profit, and many industries are still at a low level compared to. Insiders pointed out that, since the electronic waste dismantling technical equipment level of the entire industry is not high, the industry chain is relatively short, deep cycle enough, resulting in relatively low value-added, a lot of e-waste dismantling business average gross margin less than 10%.
Even the high policy of subsidies to improve corporate profits and no downturn in the industry in common. Ministry of Finance in 2014 the central government fund revenue and expenditure budget table shows that in 2013 waste electrical and electronic products processing fund income 2.811 billion yuan, 753 million yuan fund expenditures, including direct subsidies to processing enterprises reached 629 million yuan.
"Light dismantling do so, gross margin is very low, sustained core competitiveness is weak." Grammy chairman Xu Kaihua said this years Grammy acquisitions are made along the chain integration, aimed at do industrial chain integration of resources, so the profits in the industry in the middle and upper levels.
"Because the waste disposal industry, especially as electronic waste in this industry, we mainly through recycling, and now the average gross profit margin of between 20% to 25% in the future with the entire national tax policy, the implementation of green taxes to recover the waste, at the same time With the extension of our industrial chain, increase value-added products through technology-driven, our gross margin will go up. "said Xu Kaihua in metal commodity prices decline, Grammy through technological upgrading and value-added upgrade to stable gross margin. Second, the future of tax policy and environmental policy will improve our gross margin, depending on the number of problems in the future environmental tax.
In fact, in addition to profit is not high, the tax issues Xu Kaihua mentioned dismantling business for many, it is a wound, but the "heart."
According to the reporter, the domestic renewable source of non-ferrous metal recycling goods are residents picking personnel, government agencies and organizations of non-business units, schools, military, small scrap yards, which are the source of the units and individuals usually do not have the invoice qualifications, so it is necessary to purchase the unit from scratch on the full amount of 17% VAT, corporate tax is likely to cause an excessive burden.
Shareholders' meeting in March this year, the Xu Kaihua said that as the waste fee system is not fully implemented, a number of waste treatment does not receive fees; unreasonable VAT renewable resources industry, the acquisition of a number of waste without deduction, tax and other policies must be fully regime to be improved, profit margins are still gaps compared to large international companies.
"China's renewable resources industry is still in a rather awkward situation." Xu Kaihua told reporters that the VAT problem can usually affects several points industry profits.
He told reporters that electronic waste is charged by a profit model, resources worth more than you can do a little more income, but the charge mode must be profitable, otherwise the entire industry would be unsustainable.
"Recycling by several conditions must be profitable. The first one is to charge, that is, producers and consumers to pay for your retirement products, producers pay, we recycle disposer money. The second is through technology, the resources into products and then sold, these two aspects play a key role in recycling profitable. So we hope that environmental taxes as soon as possible, to increase our added value through technological innovation, so that we can keep lifting profitability. " Xu Kaihua says.
Capital to promote industrial chain integration
"Midstream processing is mainly subject to capital difficulties, various enterprises recovery are quite different state subsidies issued requires at least a year, listed companies financing channels open, the amount of recovered gradually expand production capacity most severe for SMEs, which is the industry The best time to integrate and layout. "Sen, deputy general manager of environmental protection 邓明强 blue, told reporters that a small minority, scattered, lack of core competitiveness of the industry is difficult to innovation and development, it is difficult to enter the global market.
So, since last year, although profit model to a considerable extent still dependent on government subsidies and policy support, but the merger dismantling e-waste recycling industry began to increase. Reporters learned through industry sources, the current Sound Environment, DJEC other companies have corresponding merger plan.
The cooperation with acquisitions usually occurs in the upstream and downstream ends.
In May this year, second-hand electronic equipment recycling electric provider announced the completion of love $ 8 million B round of financing, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) lead investor, existing investors with investment Morningside Ventures, Morningside Ventures also told in 2011 Love recovery of investment $ 2,000,000. It is understood that love recycling founded in 2011, mainly to provide mobile phones, digital products and other used electronic equipment recycling replacement service.
"The biggest problem is how to expand the business scale, the current line recycling are restricted." Xu Kaihua told reporters that electronic waste dismantling do economies of scale, logistics and manpower and other costs for the dismantling companies are all relatively high cost. Grammy recovered from under an existing wired network to a multi-level e-commerce nationwide recycling network, realization of electronic waste "cloud recovery."
Currently, the Grammy and love to recycle Partner, the former major mobile phone-based recycling electronic waste, cell phones daily amount recovered nearly 2000, which used cell phone about 300 to 400.
Insiders told reporters that the formal dismantling business, if supply drive more than two hours, because the cost would be too high and losses, and the size of the dismantling industry is also an important indicator. Guangdong Guiyu dismantling depth and refining center of China's earliest form, has been considered the underground dismantling industry "Holy Land", because control over the country's recycling channels.
In Xu Kaihua opinion, urban mines are scattered system, you need to use decentralized approach to mining, but the line is an open system, with "Stone one of" facilitating the logistics system, the recovery will dominate the line recall mode Types of. Especially mobile phones with personal privacy such products, consumers can not give 'guerrillas' disposal, was assured by a third party platform.
Last March, China Dongjiang Environmental and green scouring a joint venture to invest in the construction of old mobile phones dismantling and resource utilization projects, DJEC by panning green platform to build China's recycling of old mobile phones recycling system.
The other end is the downstream industry chain integration.
Following the June 2014 spent more than 300 million yuan to acquire 60% stake in Yangzhou Co., Ltd. Nimda precious metals, in Grammy EGM on March 5, the shareholders vote again to acquire a 49% stake, Lectra Kay, Dulwich 49% stake Grammy, Zhejiang Dewei 65% stake in the merger plan, as well as up to 30 billion set by the program. Acquisition of Zhejiang Dewei actually help get through the recovery Grammy tungsten resources, tungsten to tungsten material resources from the waste, and then to the carbide devices, Xu Kaihua said, "This is a 'newspaper recycling - remanufactured materials preparation - Devices then prepared 'a complete industrial chain. "
In June, Gezhouba and Chifeng gold Both companies will be announced on the downstream of "expansion", continuous efforts on renewable resources, recycling, sorting, renewable raw materials and other services.
"Environmental protection is a humiliation of doing business, a lot of capital coming in for the purpose of profit may be based." Xu Kaihua told reporters that the direction of development of circular economy enterprise, not works better, but the advantages of resources enterprises to enter, promote the level of resources and industrialization level. He said that the dismantling of trade barriers is gradually improving, but companies have to play into the 100, there are 60 minutes of play, companies will achieve economies of scale through independent competitive. (Source: First Financial Daily)